Saturday, May 23, 2020

Rome, Father Of Western Civilization - 1634 Words

Rome, father of Western civilization. When we think of Rome we think of names like Augustus, Constantine, Trajan, and of course Julius Caesar. These men did not accomplish their victories with their own bare hands, but with the loyalty and fervor of their men, their appendages. These men, are not unlike us today, they had families, friends, ambitions, and emotions, and despite how separated they may seem to us by time, and culture, they still bled for their nation, and their people. The men under Caesar, a professional, cold-blooded army didn’t start that way. In the Roman Republic, social classes can be broken down into a dichotomy between the plebeians and the patricians, and though there was some middle ground, as well as classes such†¦show more content†¦Another letter from soldier named Apion to his father, wishing the best for his family and friends back home, and thanking his father for raising him so well(Great Names 1). These were just people who volunteered to serve their nation, to both bring honor to their family, and seemingly out of legitimate love for their homeland. We can see a sort of proto-nationalism began to come about in Rome that would only return more than a millennium later, The Roman army before the time of Caesar, had gone through centuries of reform. During the second Punic War Scipio Africanus had witnessed the disastrous failure of the Roman army in Cannae at the hands of Hannibal, and so instituted reforms to the army in order to train them to better maneuver on the battlefield(Cavizzi). With his better trained and disciplined men he was able to defeat Hannibal’s army in the Battle of Zama ending the war(Cavizzi). Another important reformer was Marius. Marius noticed that the Roman army had trouble filling its ranks when only recruiting from patricians, and landless plebeians, and so instituted a policy that allowed all able bodied men to serve in the army(Cavizzi). This policy allowed for governors to bypass the senate in order to personally raise armies, and in turn it changed the loyalty of soldier from the Republic to their commander, this would facilitate the rise of Caesar to power much later(Cavizzi). The Roman army could therefore be broken into three ranks,Show MoreRelated Women changing From Hellenistic to Late Antiquity Essay777 Words   |  4 Pageshave specific roles that they each carry out. During ancient times, in most western cultures, women were inferior to men. Women’s status seemed to change in a pattern that repeated it self from one time period to another. Gradually, the status of women did change from political standpoints of the societies. From political power to having the right last name, women have transformed and became a huge part of Western Civilization. During times of Hellenic Greece, women were considered naturally weakerRead MoreCivilization is Connected from the Mesopotamians to the Powerful Roman Empire836 Words   |  4 Pagesthat have left an enduring influence. Society has developed many components which became foundational to Western culture from the Mesopotamian civilizations to the emergence of the Romans. The contributions of a variety of cultures shaped the course of Western history. The Mesopotamians and Egyptians are among the first civilizations to make a valuable contribution to Western Civilization. Both Babylonians and Egyptians managed to produce written systems of communicating ideas. The BabyloniansRead MoreConstantine : A Influential Leader1295 Words   |  6 PagesNaissus, Moesia, to father Flavius Valerius and mother Helena. His father became Roman emperor in around 305 CE. He was elected to the position of emperor by Maximalla, who was the emperor of Western Rome at the time. While his father was alive, Constantine was sent off to Eastern Rome, where he received a great education and became fluent in both Greek and Latin. This is when most historians agree that he was introduced to Christianity. Constantine then went back to Western Rome where he would takeRead MoreRoman Civilization943 Words   |  4 Pagesextreme changes in their civilization. The changes consisted of new leaders controlling the region, Rome becoming spilt up into two sections, and Christianity gaining all of religious control. There was very much a rapid downfall with many more changes as well, such as the spread of Roman law and trade .Many people say that decline is what made Rome so famous today. Rome was found by Romulus and his brother Remus on the 21st of April 753B.C. Romulus was the first king of Rome. The Empire began toRead MoreThe Classical Romans And The Roman Civilization1202 Words   |  5 PagesMarlee Bunker HIS-111-02 Mr. Shelton October 13, 2014 The Classical Romans There is a lot of background on the Classical Roman Civilization. They had many traditions and values that came from ancient Italians. The culture of the Romans was inclined by classical Greece. Many of the things that Romans did came from the Greeks. They were the type who did not like the idea of new things coming to place because they thought it may be dangerous. They wanted to keep the old traditions and values, asRead MoreThe Civilization Of Ancient Rome1366 Words   |  6 Pages The Civilization of Ancient Rome and The Time of the Kings, From Republic to Empire: Romulus and Remus, the Etruscans, the Greeks and early influences HST 101 Spring 2015 Lance Raebel Pima Community College West Campus Tucson, Arizona Table of Contents Introduction I. Romulus And Remus founding story a. Twin brothers i. Considered to be half gods ii. Rasied by a she wolf b. Father the god of war i. Rapes Rhea Silvia their mother c. Find Rome i. Romulus then kills Remus for leadership IIRead MoreCompare And Contrast Rome And Han Empire1342 Words   |  6 PagesOver the last three centuries, Rome and the Han Dynasty were successful in their expansion throughout their respected parts of the world. Although both ran a very similar government, both successful civilizations did so using different methods. The Han would govern using imperial rule in addition to the Analects of Confucianism to run their political ideology. The Han Dynasty would eventually even change the text of the Analects per how they ruled through the original tablets. The Roman Empire wouldRead MoreAncient Rome By Jerry Toner Essay1704 Words   |  7 Pages Have you ever thought about how everyday lives of ancient romans were? Popular culture in ancient Rome by Jerry Toner gives you an insight of the everyday lives of non-elite romans and problems they would often face. Since the main population consisted of the bourgeois citizens, Toner concentrates his focus on their perspective of life. Toner gives you a vivid representation of the lives of ancient romans by providing a thorough explanation of the middle class lives. Toner touches on a variety ofRead MoreThe World Of Antiquity, The Roman Empire Essay1678 Words   |  7 Pagestop. They ruled this enormous amount of lands, the center being the city of Rome and the leader being the roman emperor. The empire’s extensive political, economic and social structure became vital to the heritage of the Ancient Civilization. The emergence of sustainable agriculture, primitive technology, scholarly writing and reading, and metalworking had developed stability, growth, and overall framewor k of civilization. Roman dominance prevailed for a long period of time and influenced a greatRead MoreThe Legacy of the Ancient Roman Civilization Essay1665 Words   |  7 PagesLegacy of the Ancient Roman Civilization There have been many amazing and influential empires in Western civilization. Of these historical empires, the legacy of the Ancient Roman Civilization seems to be the most prevalent. Rome, by no means, was an empire that grew overnight. #Roman civilization was twelve hundred years of developing, flourishing and ultimately disintegrating. This was a period of time of innovation, creation, and Roman domination. The civilization owes much of its heritage

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Christianity And The Jewish Religion - 2350 Words

Christianity In the initial decades of the Roman Empire, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, a new religion, Christianity, emerged. Much of the impetus for this new religion rested in issues in the Jewish religion, including a long-standing belief in the coming of a Messiah and rigidities that had developed in the Jewish priesthood. Whether or not Christianity was created by God, as Christians believe, the early stages of the religion focused on cleansing the Jewish religion of stiff rituals and haughty leaders. It had little at first to do with Roman culture. Christianity arose in a remote province and appealed particularly to the poorer classes. It is not easy, as a result, to fit Christianity neatly into the patterns of Roman history: It was deliberately separate, and only gradually had wider impact.(Robert A. Guisepi) Symbol The Christian cross has traditionally been a symbol representing Christianity or Christendom as a whole. The Christian cross was in use from the time of early Christianity, but it remained less prominent than competing symbols (Ichthys, Staurogram, Alpha and Omega, Christogram, Labarum, etc.) until the medieval Crusades. Early Christianity had use for such symbols due to the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, as the symbol allowed inconspicuous identification of one Christian to another.(2016, Wikipedia) Druze Faith The Druze, also known as the Sons of Grace, are a secretive, tightly-knit religious sect whose origins can beShow MoreRelatedUnderstanding the Relation Between Judaism and Christianity844 Words   |  4 Pagesmeans knowing the overall aspects of Christianity. There are many aspects of Christianity that roots back to Judaism Both historically and theologically; Christianity shares a tie with Judaism. It is undeniable that historically Christianity roots back to Judaism. And theologically, it shares the same divine god and its early preaching. The customs and traditions that early Christians followed were mostly Jewish traditions. However, over the time, both religions grew up to the animosity towards eachRead MoreChristianity, Islam, And Judaism1636 Words   |  7 PagesChristianity, Islam, and Judaism All three religions believe and worship the same God but they do it in different ways. Judaism happens to be the oldest religion today but they don’t have an official creed. They aim to teach you about God, the Messiah, human beings, and the universe which makes Jewish beliefs very important to them. But it is important to understand that being Jewish is more of a race and culture than it is a religion. Some Jewish people may have no interest in Judaism. Judaism hasRead MorePaul s Teachings Of Christianity1234 Words   |  5 Pagesthe center of Christianity, but without Paul, Christianity would never exist. Paul organized Jesus’s disciples after Jesus’s death. Paul introduced Christianity to Non-Jewish people. He was extremely talented at converting others. The New Testament is largely based off Paul’s teachings. Paul also shaped the way Christianity thinks, he was the man who took a small cult and shaped it so that it would become a world religion; Paul was the most important figure to the growth of Christianity, even more thanRead More Trinity of Beliefs Essay1361 Words   |  6 PagesWorld the religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, which are all closely related, are examined. All three of these religions are Western, they are monotheistic, and together they form the Abramic religions. Judaism is the oldest, dating from around 2000 BC and the most ancient religion still practiced in todays society; Christianity originates from shortly after the death of Jesus Christ; Islam is the youngest, emerging in the seventh century AD. It would appear, then, that Christianity and IslamRead MoreThree Main Religions in the Middle East 897 Words   |  4 PagesMany have heard the term â€Å"the three major religions†, but how many know what is meant by this? The three major religions are referring to the religions in the Middle East countries, such as Iran, Iraq, etc. The religions are Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. With the close proximity of these countries, but the differing views on things, mainly religion, creates some conflicts and hostility. In America, people are allowed to worship who they want, and believe in what they choose. When someone saysRead MoreChristianity vs. Judaism Analysis1669 Words   |  7 PagesChristianity vs. Judaism Christianity and Judaism are two Abrahamic theologies that have comparable origins, but have various beliefs, practices and teachings. Founded in 1300 BC, Judaism is one of the oldest religions in the world today. The Jewish theology began with Abraham, who God sent to Canaan, where it all began. Hebrews took Judaism as their first religion. 14 million people classify themselves as Jewish worldwide today. Coming from Judaism, Christianity was founded in 30 ADRead MoreA Complex Relationship Between Jews And Christians926 Words   |  4 Pagesfrom the beginning of Christianity. The displacement of the Jews throughout their history has not dampened the maintenance of their exceptional identity. They keep their individuality by adherence to the way of the Torah (Lecture 2, 2014). Christianity and Judaism share a common ground in that they are both ancient religions, much of the Jewish and Christian laws have had to be revitalized to fit the changing times. Much like the Po pe of the Catholic religion, in the Jewish faith the Pharisees haveRead MoreJudaism, Christianity, And Islam992 Words   |  4 PagesJudaism, Christianity and Islam are three of the most recognized monotheistic religions worldwide. These religions are often referred to as the Abrahamic religions because of their history to the founding father, Abraham. Judaism, Christianity and Islam are closely related with varying differences. Christianity was born from within the Jewish tradition, and Islam developed from both Christianity and Judaism. We take a look at some of the major similarities and major differences of these widely practicedRead MoreChristianity And The Rise Of Christianity1395 Words   |  6 PagesChristianity is the historical religion stemming from the teachings of Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. â€Å"Of all the great religions Christianity is the most widespread and has the largest number of adherents.† It is the world’s largest and most influentia l religion in history. Christianity can be found on every corner of the globe with nearly two billion followers at the beginning of the 21st century. It is the predominant religion in Europe, the Americas, and Southern Africa. This religion basedRead MoreThe Prophet, Muhammad, Islam1349 Words   |  6 PagesJudaism and Christianity both originate in Palestine, but Judaism commenced over 3,500 years ago while Christianity found its beginning in 33 C.E. Christianity was created by Christ, the son of God, while Abraham was the man credited with founding Judaism. Assuredly, albeit Judaism, Christianity and Islam were founded in divergent times, the religions still hold similarities in beliefs and teachings. However, differentiations are still present and significant. In ancient times the religions of Judaism

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Styles and Themes of Samuel Richardson Free Essays

string(83) " of those would become the Speaker of the House of Commons \(Kinkead-Weekes 667\)\." Styles and Themes of Samuel Richardson Samuel Richardson wrote his novels using the epistolary novel style, in which all the books are made up of letters. These letters are meant to be written during the time that the stories take place by the main character. They either described a scene or dialogue within the scene (Brophy 245). We will write a custom essay sample on Styles and Themes of Samuel Richardson or any similar topic only for you Order Now The stories used the themes of female dominance over the emotions of a man, and male dominance over the physicality of a woman. Also, many women in his stories are put under a great amount of distress, which takes up most of the plot of the novel (â€Å"Richardson Criticism†). Little is known of Richardson’s early years beyond the few things that Richardson was willing to share. Although he was not forthcoming with specific events and incidents, he did talk about the origins of his writing ability; Richardson would tell stories to his friends and spent his youth constantly writing letters. One such letter, written when Richardson was almost 11, was directed to a woman in her 50s who was in the habit of constantly criticizing others (Brissenden 2). â€Å"Assuming the style and address of a person in years†, Richardson cautioned her about her actions. However, his handwriting was used to determine that it was his work, and the woman complained to his mother (Harris 68). The result was, as he explains, that â€Å"my mother chides me for the freedom taken by such a boy with a woman of her years† but also â€Å"commended my principles, though she censured the liberty taken (Brophy 245). † Pamela was immediately and extremely popular with the reading public. Richardson initially also enjoyed critical acclaim and was considered one of the most important English novelists. His contemporaries focused almost exclusively on his moral teachings, and most praised the author for his judgment and honesty. Richardson’s stated purpose in his works was moral instruction and thus when his sincerity was eventually questioned, and his work attacked by Fielding in parodies including Shamela, Richardson defended himself with explanations and revisions, particularly in the third edition of Pamela. Fielding ridiculed Pamela’s obsession with chastity and her tendency to measure the rewards of virtue in material terms (Harris 87). Fielding’s interpretation of Pamela established the opposition between â€Å"Pamelist† and â€Å"anti-Pamelist† which has persisted to the present day (Brissenden 32). Richardson’s popularity rapidly diminished in the nineteenth-century until he was generally neglected. However, critics would on occasion mention him as historically important for advancing the epistolary form. William Hazlitt perceptively wrote that his works combine the romance of fiction with the â€Å"literal minuteness of a common diary. † Twentieth-century critics have emphasized Richardson’s concept of self (Brissenden 12). His character’s extreme self-awareness can be read at different levels; according to both Richardson and critics, the characters are not as bound to the truth as they continually claim. Elements of Richardson’s work have often been praised in spite of their author; critics suggested that the depths of his work were present unconsciously or even by accident (Brissenden 32). Scholar A. D. McKillop argued convincingly to the contrary, that Richardson was a skilled, deliberate craftsman conscious of his work, its layers, and its meanings. Further rehabilitation to Richardson’s reputation was gained from W. M. Sale’s painstaking bibliographic study and Ian Watt’s discussion of background and technique. Richardson is studied today as a psychological novelist and as a social historian for his descriptions and insight in regard to the relationships of the sexes in a patriarchal society, and to sexual themes in general (Brissenden 32).. While working for Wilde, he met a rich gentleman who took an interest in Richardson’s writing abilities and the two began to correspond with each other. When the gentleman died a few years later, Richardson lost a potential patron, which delayed his ability to pursue his own writing career. He decided to devote himself completely to his apprenticeship, and he worked his way up to a position as a compositor and a corrector of the shop’s printing press. In 1713, Richardson left Wilde to become â€Å"Overseer and Corrector of a Printing-Office†. This meant that Richardson ran his own shop, but the location of that shop is unknown. It is possible that the shop was located in Staining Lane or may have been jointly run with John Leake in Jewin Street (Brophy 245). In 1719, Richardson was able to take his freedom from being an apprentice and was soon able to afford to set up his own printing shop, which he did after he moved near the Salisbury Court district close to Fleet Street. Although he claimed to business associates that he was working out of the well-known Salisbury Court, his printing shop was more accurately located on the corner of Blue Ball Court and Dorset Street in a house that later became Bell’s Building (Brissenden 12). On 23 November 1721 Richardson married Martha Wilde, the daughter of his former employer. The match was â€Å"prompted mainly by prudential considerations†, although Richardson would claim later that there was a strong love-affair between him and Martha. He soon brought her to live with him in the printing shop that served also as his home (Brissenden 14). One of Richardson’s first major printing contracts came in June of 1723 when he began to print the bi-weekly The True Briton for Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton. This was a Jacobite political paper which attacked the government and was soon censored for printing â€Å"common libel (Brophy 245). However, Richardson’s name was not on the publication, and he was able to escape any of the negative fallout, although it is possible that Richardson participated in the papers as far as actually authoring one himself. The only lasting effect from the paper would be the incorporation of Wharton’s libertine characteristics in the character of Lovelace in Richardson’s Clarissa, although Whart on would be only one of many models of libertine behavior that Richardson would find in his life. In 1724, Richardson befriended Thomas Gent, Henry Woodfall, and Arthur Onslow, the latter of those would become the Speaker of the House of Commons (Kinkead-Weekes 667). You read "Styles and Themes of Samuel Richardson" in category "Papers" In 1733, Richardson was granted a contract with the House of Commons, with help from Onslow, to print the Journals of the House. The twenty-six volumes of the work soon improved his business. Later in 1733, he wrote The Apprentice’s Vade Mecum, urging young men like him to be diligent and self-denying (Brophy 245). The work was intended to â€Å"create the perfect apprentice. Written in response to the â€Å"epidemic Evils of the present Age†, the text is best known for its condemnation of popular forms of entertainment including theatres, taverns and gambling. The manual targets the apprentice as the focal point for the moral improvement of society, not because he is most susceptible to vice, but because, Richardson suggests, he is more responsive to moral improvement than his social betters. His total staff during the 1730s numbered 7, as his first three apprentices were free by 1728, and two of his apprentices, Verren and Smith, died soon into their apprenticeship (Brophy 245). The loss of Verren was particularly devastating to Richardson because Verren was his nephew and his hope for a male heir that would take over the press (Kinkead-Weekes 67). Work continued to improve, and Richardson printed the Daily Journal between 1736 and 1737, and the Daily Gazetteer in 1738. During his time printing the Daily Journal, he was also printer to the â€Å"Society for the Encouragement of Learning†, a group that tried to help authors become independent from publishers, but collapsed soon after. In December 1738, Richardson’s printing business was successful enough to allow him to lease a house in Fulham. This house, which would be Richardson’s residence from 1739 to 1754, was later named â€Å"The Grange† in 1836. In 1739, Richardson was asked by his friends Charles Irvington and John Osborn to write â€Å"a little volume of Letters, in a common style, on such subjects as might be of use to those country readers, who were unable to invite for themselves. † While writing this volume, Richardson was inspired to write his first novel (Brophy 245). Richardson made the transition from master printer to novelist on 6 November 1740 with the publication of Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded. Pamela was sometimes regarded as â€Å"the first English novel. † Richardson explained the origins of the work (Brophy 245). In the progress, writing two or three letters to instruct handsome girls, who were obliged to go out to service, as we phrase it, how to avoid the snares that might be laid against their virtue, and hence sprung Pamela†¦ Little did I think, at first, of making one, much less two volumes of it†¦ I thought the story, if written in an easy and natural manner, suitably to the simplicity of it, might possibly introduce a new species of writing, that might possibly turn young people into a course of reading different from the pomp and parade of romance-writing, and dismissing the improbable and marvelous, with which novels generally abound, might tend to promote the cause of religion and virtue (Kinkead-Weekes 47). After Richardson started the work on 10 November 1739, his wife and her friends became so interested in the story that he finished it on 10 January 1740. Pamela Andrews, the heroine of Pamela, represented â€Å"Richardson’s insistence upon well-defined feminine roles† and was part of a common fear held during the 18th century that women were â€Å"too bold. † In particular, her â€Å"zeal for housewifery† was included as a proper role of women in society. Although Pamela and the title heroine were popular and gave a proper model for how women should act, they inspired â€Å"a storm of anti-Pamelas† (like Henry Fielding’s Shamela and Joseph Andrews) because the character â€Å"perfectly played her part (Brophy 243). † Later that year, Richardson printed Rivington and Osborn’s book which inspired Pamela under the title of Letters written to and for particular Friends, on the most important Occasions. Directing not only the requisite Style and Forms to be observed in writing Familiar Letters; but how to think and act justly and prudently, in the common Concerns of Human Life. The book contained many anecdotes and lessons on how to live, but Richardson did not care for the work and it was never expanded even though it went into six editions during his life. He went so far as to tell a friend, â€Å"This volume of letters is not worthy of your perusal† because they were â€Å"intended for the lower classes of people. In September 1741, a sequel of Pamela called Pamela’s Conduct in High Life was published by Ward and Chandler. Although the work lacks the literary merits of the original, Richardson was compelled to publish two more volumes in December 1741 to tell of further exploits of Pamela, the title heroine, while â€Å"in her Exalted Condition. † The public’s interest in the characters was waning, and this was only furthered by Richardson’s fo cusing on Pamela discussing morality, literature, and philosophy. After the failures of the Pamela sequels, Richardson began to compose a new novel. It was not until early 1744 that the content of the plot was known, and this happened when he sent Aaron Hill two chapters to read. In particular, Richardson asked Hill if he could help shorten the chapters because Richardson was worried about the length of the novel. Hill refused, saying, You have formed a style, as much your property as our respect for what you write is, where verbosity becomes a virtue; because, in pictures which you draw with such a skillful negligence, redundancy but conveys resemblance; and to contract the strokes, would be to spoil the likeness (Kunitz 60). In July, Richardson sent Hill a complete â€Å"design† of the story, and asked Hill to try again, but Hill responded, â€Å"It is impossible, after the wonders you have shown in Pamela, to question your infallible success in this new, natural, attempt† and that â€Å"you must give me leave to be astonished, when you tell me that you have finished it already. † However, the novel wasn’t complete to Richardson’s satisfaction until October 1746. Between 1744 and 1746, Richardson tried to find readers who could help him shorten the work, but his readers wanted to keep the work in its entirety (Kunitz 60). A frustrated Richardson wrote to Edward Young in November 1747: What contentions, what disputes have I involved myself in with my poor Clarissa through my own diffidence, and for want of a will! I wish I had never consulted anybody but Dr. Young, who so kindly vouchsafed me his ear, and sometimes his opinion (Brissenden 32). Richardson did not devote all of his time just to working on his new novel, but was busy printing various works for other authors that he knew. In 1742, he printed the third edition of Daniel’s Tour through Great Britain. He filled his new few years with smaller works for his friends until 1748, when Richardson started helping Sarah Fielding and her friend Jane Collier to write novels. By 1748, Richardson was so impressed with Collier that he accepted her as the governess to his daughters (Brophy 243). In 1753, she wrote An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting with the help of Sarah Fielding and possibly James Harris or Richardson, and it was Richardson who printed the work (Kunitz 60). But Collier was not the only author to be helped by Richardson, as he printed an edition of Young’s Night Thoughts in 1749. By 1748 his novel Clarissa was published in full: two volumes appeared in November 1747, two in April 1748 and three in December 1748. Unlike the novel, the author was not faring well at this time. By August 1748, Richardson was in poor health. He had a sparse diet that consisted mostly of vegetables and drinking vast amount of water, and was not robust enough to prevent the effects of being bled upon the advice of various doctors throughout his life. He was known for â€Å"vague ‘startings’ and ‘paroxysms'†, along with experiencing tremors. Richardson once wrote to a friend that â€Å"my nervous disorders will permit me to write with more impunity than to read† and that writing allowed him a â€Å"freedom he could find nowhere else (Brissenden 32). † However, his condition did not stop him from continuing to release the final volumes Clarissa after November 1748 (Brophy 243). To Hill he wrote: â€Å"The Whole will make Seven; that is, one more to attend these two. Eight crowded into Seven, by a smaller Type. Ashamed as I am of the Prolixity, I thought I owed the Public Eight Vols. n Quantity for the Price of Seven† Richardson later made it up to the public with â€Å"deferred Restorations† of the fourth edition of the novel being printed in larger print with eight volumes and a preface that reads: â€Å"It is proper to observe with regard to the present Edition that it has been thought fit to restore many Passages, and several Letters which were omitted in the former merely for shortening-sa ke (Brophy 243). † The response to the novel was positive, and the public began to describe the title heroine as â€Å"divine Clarissa. It was soon considered Richardson’s â€Å"masterpiece,† his greatest work, and was rapidly translated into French in part or in full, for instance by the Antoine Francois Prevost, as well as into German. In England there was particular emphasis on Richardson’s â€Å"natural creativity† and his ability to incorporate daily life experience into the novel (Brissenden 32).. However, the final three volumes were delayed, and many of the readers began to â€Å"anticipate† the concluding story and some demanded that Richardson write a happy ending. One such advocate of the happy ending was Henry Fielding, who had previously written Joseph Andrews to mock Richardson’s Pamela. Although Fielding was originally opposed to Richardson, Fielding supported the original volumes of Clarissa and thought a happy ending would be â€Å"poetical justice (Brissenden 34). Others wanted Lovelace to be reformed and for him and Clarissa to marry, but Richardson would not allow a â€Å"reformed rake† to be her husband, and was unwilling to change the ending. In a postscript to Clarissa, Richardson wrote: If the temporary sufferings of the Virtuous and the Good can be accounted for and justified on Pagan principles, many more and infinitely stronger reasons will occur to a Christian Reader in behalf of what are called unhappy Catastrophes, from a consideration of the doctrine of future rewards; which is everywhere strongly enforced in the History of Clarissa (Brissenden 36). Although few were bothered by the epistolary style, Richardson feels obligated to continue his postscript with a defense of the form based on the success of it in Pamela. However, some did question the propriety of having Lovelace, the villain of the novel, act in such an immoral fashion. The novel avoids glorifying Lovelace, as Carol Flynn puts it, But Richardson still felt the need to respond by writing a pamphlet called Answer to the Letter of a Very Reverend and Worthy Gentleman (Peden 236). In the pamphlet, he defends his characterizations and explains that he took great pains to avoid any glorification of scandalous behavior, unlike the authors of many other novels that rely on characters of such low quality (Brissenden 32).. In 1749, Richardson’s female friends started asking him to create a male figure as virtuous as his heroines â€Å"Pamela† and â€Å"Clarissa† in order to â€Å"give the world his idea of a good man and fine gentleman combined. † Although he did not at first agree, he eventually complied, starting work on a book in this vein in June 1750. Near the end of 1751, Richardson sent a draft of the novel The History of Sir Charles Grandison to Mrs. Dunnellon, and the novel was being finalized in the middle of 1752. When the novel was being printed in 1753, Richardson discovered that Irish printers were trying to pirate the work (Brissenden 32).. He immediately fired those he suspected of giving the printers advanced copies of Grandison and relied on multiple London printing firms to help him produce an authentic edition before the pirated version was sold. In Grandison, Richardson was unwilling to risk having a negative response to any â€Å"rakish† characteristics that Lovelace embodied and denigrated the immoral characters â€Å"to show those mischievous young admirers of Lovelace once and for all that the rake should be avoided (Brissenden 32). † At the same time as he was associating with important figures of the day, Richardson’s career as a novelist drew to a close. Grandison was his final novel, and he stopped writing fiction afterwards. However, he was continually prompted by various friends and admirers to continue to write along with suggested topics. Richardson did not like any of the topics, and chose to spend all of his time composing letters to his friends and associates (Peden 236). The only major work that Richardson would write would be A Collection of the Moral and Instruction Sentiments, Maxims, Cautions, and Reflexions, contained in the Histories of Pamela, Clarissa, and Sir Charles Grandison. Although it is possible that this work was inspired by Johnson asking for â€Å"index rerum† for Richardson’s novels, the Collection contains more of a focus on â€Å"moral and instructive† lessons than the index that Johnson sought. Richardson was a skilled letter writer and his talent traces back to his childhood. Throughout his whole life, he would constantly write to his various associates (Peden 236). Richardson had a â€Å"faith† in the act of letter writing, and believed that letters could be used to accurately portray character traits. He quickly adopted the epistolary novel form, which granted him â€Å"the tools, the space, and the freedom to develop distinctly different characters speaking directly to the reader. † The characters of Pamela, Clarissa, and Grandison are revealed in a personal way, with the first two using the epistolary form for â€Å"dramatic† purposes, and the last for â€Å"celebratory† purposes (Peden 236). In his first novel, Pamela, he explored the various complexities of the title character’s life, and the letters allow the reader to witness her develop and progress over time. The novel was an experiment, but it allowed Richardson to create a complex heroine through a series of her letters. When Richardson wrote Clarissa, he had more experience in the form and expanded the letter writing to four different correspondents, which created a complex system of characters encouraging each other to grow and develop over time (Kunitz 60). However, the villain of the story, Lovelace, is also involved in the letter writing, and this leads to tragedy (Brissenden 32). Leo Braudy described the benefits of the epistolary form of Clarissa as, â€Å"Language can work: letters can be ways to communicate and justify. † By the time Richardson writes Grandison, he transforms the letter writing from telling of personal insights and explaining feelings into a means for people to communicate their thoughts on the actions of others and for the public to celebrate virtue. The letters are no longer written for a few people, but are passed along in order for all to see (Brophy 243). Works Cited Brissenden, R. F. â€Å"Samuel Richardson. † British Writers. Ed. Ian Scott-Kilvert. Vol. 3. New York: Scribner, 1987. Print. Brophy, Elizabeth Bergen. Samuel Richardson: The Triumph of Craft. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1974. Print. Eaves, T. C. Duncan, and Ben D. Kimpel. Samuel Richardson: a Biography. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971. Print. Harris, Jocelyn. Samuel Richardson. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987. Print. Kearney, A. M. Samuel Richardson. London, Routledge K. Paul: Northumberland Limited, 1968. Print. Kinkead-Weekes, Mark. Introduction. Pamela. By Samuel Richardson. Vol. 1. London: J. M. Dent Sons, 1962. Print. —. Samuel Richardson: Dramatic Novelist. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1973. Print. Kunitz, Stanley J. , and Howard Haycraft, eds. â€Å"Samuel Richardson. † British Authors Before 1800: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: H. Wilson, 1952. Print. Peden, William. â€Å"Samuel Richardson. † Critical Survey of Long Fiction. Ed. Carl E. Rollyson. Vol. 6. Pasadena, CA: Salem, 2000. Print. â€Å"Samuel Richardson Criticism. † ENotes – Literature Study Guides, How to cite Styles and Themes of Samuel Richardson, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Racism issue in Kuwait

Question: Describe about the Racism issue in Kuwait? Answer: Introduction Racism has been one of the major concerns that are faced by the people and groups in many of the developing and developed countries. It is termed as the characteristics or belief that attributes people based on the factors that are related to racism. People or groups promote or discourage the religious followings of some of the groups or people. Despite of efforts being made by the authorities, the success rate is quite less. Racism has been used as a powerful weapon for spreading fears, religion rebellion, and evil practices. This has increased the number of conflicts and internal wars against people following a particular religious method in the same country. Such factors have negatively impacted the economic performance of the country. As per the Article 19, every individual has a right of speech. This has also being mentioned under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Racism is not limited to the type of words and sentences used to express the feelings and views of a group, against the other. It also includes the acts that have been performed against the other. The act in some cases has caused serious consequences and has impacted hundreds and thousands of people. This essay has been prepared to highlight the evil impact of racism in many of the Middle East countries including Kuwait. The discrimination has been common amongst the foreign workers who are employed by companies in Kuwait (Ali et al., 2011). The workers are provided with low wages, and less facilities which discriminates them from the residents of the country. Passports of the workers have been confiscated for improper reasons. The authorities in some cases treat the staffs as the second class residents or citizens. Such factors have become a serious concern, as the number of incidences is constantly increasing. The essay has articles published on two different newspapers. The contents were associated with the racism, and the impact of the practices on the people. Cases related to racism have become quite common at workplace and in organizing different programs or events (Act Alliance, 2011). Analysis of the problem Kuwait is a country that has been guided by the Islamic practices, and this is assumed by the people to be a peaceful country. However the fact is quite different from the stated reality. The laws formed and followed by the authorities of the country are not good enough to support the human rights that are required for the individual. The report also states that the Asian expats in Kuwait have the appropriate type of job, which contributes towards the economic development of the country. Nevertheless, the authorities fail to provide the members with the rights and benefits that are deserved by the expats (Aguna and Kovacevic, 2011). Employees are hired from many of the Asian countries at the lowest price. the companies dont have to pay a higher wage rates for the staffs being hired from such countries. However, the management of the company dont pay any benefits to the people hired from different parts of the globe. Approach to analyse the issue This is considered to be improper and contributes towards racism. Many workers are provided with illegal visas, which make the whole process illegal. Through such process, the management of the company attempts to increase the profits, and provide fewer benefits to the people. Rich and established people of the country, continue to earn lucrative profit every year, while poor fail to protect the rights that have to be provided to them. The issue related to racism has always been serious and thus the authorities have attempted to take the corrective steps that would control the consequences of the acts. In the past, the colonialism had caused racism, which included racial discrimination and implementation of intolerance rules on the people. The authorities in Kuwait had imposed strict rules on the Asian expats, which had made the event quite inhuman for the people. Impact of racism on the lives of the people from different descendants had to be analysed. Through this process, an effort for corrective actions and proper implementation of the steps for securing the lives of the people could be introduced for the people. Victims of the racism had to face lots of challenges in leading a normal live. Such rights were an integral part of the basic rights that were supposed to be provided to the people. The authorities had to take the correct steps through which the structure of the country for following the rights that has to be provided to the people has to be implemented (Alkire, Conconi, and Seth, 2014). Racism is a factor that impacts the economic performance of the country negatively. It also affects the cultural and social factors, which is considered to be essential for the development of the country. The factors that are associated with racism and racial discrimination have affected the performance of the country. In fact, it has caused underdevelopment of the nation, which is a serious concern for the people. Rights provided to men, children, and women has to be equal as this would help in analysing the challenges and implementing the right steps that would help in providing equal rights to the people residing in the country. Apart from providing equal rights, it is essential to develop and implement an effective rule that would provide equal and fair opportunities to the expats residing in the court. In other words, it is essential to introduce the right development steps that would provide an atmosphere to everyone (Amnesty International, 2012). As per an analysis report, it has been stated that Kuwait is one of the worst countries for expats to stay. This has been due to the poor results in the process of setting ease in the index system and valuing people. The process to get settled in Kuwait is not easy, as there are quite a few facilities that have been provided to the people. Media and other social networking system have played an important role in highlighting the trauma faced by the expats residing in Kuwait. Authorities have been working towards improving the laws that are meant to secure the people residing in the country. Rules drafted As per the amended rules, the legal authorities wouldnt be able to deport the people from the country without seeking permission from the interior ministry. New rule has been drafted to implement changes that would help in providing more benefits to the people. The rules have been amended by the Kuwait Society for Human Rights which is also called as KSHR. It has been stated that around 2.7 million people are expatriated from the country every year. Analytical review News channel and other medias play an important role in analysing the problem or issues faced by the people. Through such medium an effort has been made to implement the changes that would provide better help to the people who decide to reside in the country. Discrimination has a direct impact on the social economic factor of the country. Thus, it is imperative to control the problem and implement the right steps that would create awareness about the issue. The laws have been constantly reviewed and the required changes are implemented to provide better benefits to the people. Such process is meant to reduce the internal conflicts that affect the peace and harmony within the country. Due to an increase in the cases against racism, report about the violations against the people who have shifted from different parts of the globe to Kuwait has doubled up. Social Medias like the Kuwait times and other international Medias cover the serious consequences of the problem. This has been done with an intention of reducing the impact of racial discrimination on the people. It is essential to impose rules that would increase the value of democratic values, and encourage the people to form participatory governance. The group and the practices are followed by different states and countries in various political sector. This is one of the reasons, it becomes imperative to form and implement effective strategies and structures that would look into the factors that cause racism issue within the country. If the right steps are not taken, then it would affect the multi ethnic groups and other institutes that are followed within the country. Through this process, it is possible to control the discriminating factors or practices that are followed against the people from the minority group (Barro and Lee, 2013). Internal discrimination that prevails in the country is due to the different rules and policies that are followed by the people. In Kuwait, the people from some of the community are not provided with the nationality. Such groups are called as Bedoon. The group is expected to pay for the official documentation to enter into the country. Such individuals have to follow the stated rules for marrying, gaining the birth or the death certificates, issuing the drivers licenses, and requesting for the identification methods. Such groups of people have to visit the council of the government authorities, and implement the rights. The process is considered to be quite challenging and in some cases time consuming. Many of the groups of the people are not permitted to work within the country. This has affected the rights and privileges that have been provided to the people. Some of the imposed rules against the people are Inability to purchase property Not permitted to get the travel papers (Bevelander and Otterbeck, 2012). Thus, the rules for implementing the equal rules for the people has been drafted and implemented by the authorities. Recently, the authorities had simplified the rules for issuing the travel documents that are required for accomplishing the religious journey. However, it is necessary to provide the authorities with the identification that has been issued in the right manner. In case the people are not able to prove the identity, then such individuals are not permitted to return back to the country. The Bedoon man decides to marry women from Kuwait, and then the children would be considered to be from Bedoon descendants. This is not the case, when Kuwait man marries Bedoon women. In this case, the women and her children can easily acquire the citizenship. In the similar manner, the rules associated with the divorce are quite different from the rules that have been imposed for the people in the country. The Kuwaiti women cannot claim for the children but can claim for alimony. Such dif ferences in rules create serious variances, which would affect the liberty and freedom of men and women who choose to reside in Kuwait (Birt, 2009). The rules for racism have been reviewed to analyse the rights that have been provided to the people from the minority group. In this case, it is quite essential to adopt and implement an effective rule for implementing changes in the administrative and judicial measures. This would help in implementing the changes that would provide better living rights that is necessary for the people from the minority group. In order to improve the rights and provide privilege to the people, the federal authorities had introduced effective rules and regulations that would be useful in working against racism and racial discrimination. People are provided with the privileges that have been framed in accordance with the international laws. The laws and the rules that are drafted for the people residing in Kuwait is different from the ones that are followed for providing maximum benefits and rights to the people. Rules are introduced for the people of the country. In this case, the law for enforcement is introduced to provide equal rights for the people residing in the country. The laws are introduced by the authorities are meant to provide better facilities to the people, which also includes - Impose rules for reducing the violations against the human rights Implement better rules for fundamental freedom or rights that are required for securing the lives of the people (Cesari, 2006). Introduce rules that would help the people being victimised from the practices of racism and racial discrimination Dominant theory In this theory, the attitudes, values, beliefs, and morals are shared by the media authorities with the people of the society. It is considered to be one of the best mechanisms for imposing social control on various activities that impacts the lives of the people. Through this process, the thought flow of majority of the people and its impact on the society has been highlighted. In this case, the ideas are developed and it is implemented in the right manner. The dominant class is used for highlighting the revolutionary idea. The social control process is exercised with an intention of manipulation of various aspects that are related to the religion or political factors. It is quite important to implement social stability that would impact the rights of the people. Issues associated with discrimination quite often have increased the issues related to violations and other manifestations. These factors are serious and had to be handled in the prescribed manner. The role played by the political groups, along with the organizations plan to implement strategies to improve the security measures that is intended to be provided to the people. As per the rules framed by the United Nations, the rights that are associated with certain group of people have to be analysed. In this case, the below mentioned factors were analysed in the right manner Providing equal rights to the people Provide civil and political rights to the minority group of people Introduce plans that would help in the sustainable development of the people and the country (Crawford, 2007). Problem associated with Bedoon group The rights of the Bedoon group of people were highlighted for various reasons. In this case, the plans for relocating the people and the community group had to be drafted. There were many people who had to face legal actions that included deportation, for getting involved in any acts that were considered to be illegal or improper by the authorities. The improper rules and regulations had encouraged many people to issue legal notice or fight for the rights of the community. People from the Bedoon had also fought for the rights, and such a difference has to be handled or minimised in the right manner. Such steps had to be implemented after analysing the rules that were imposed by the international groups. In the past, it was noticed that the Kuwaiti the authorities, didnt take appropriate steps to reduce the inhuman behaviour or activities that were followed against the people of the country. The rights for the people has been mentioned below - To get equal rights to reside in the country Implement easy methods through which the citizenship could be achieved Get rights to earn better in the country (Chris, 2007). Restrict the authorities from imposing unacceptable rules that would restrict the freedom of the people. In the past, the Kuwaiti authorities didnt take the correct steps that would help in solving the issues associated with the racism. The problem was discussed by the members in the parliament; however, no effective steps were planned and implemented by the authorities. Racism was indeed a serious concern, but the steps that were planned to be implemented were not accurate. The problem associated with the human efforts and political factors that impacted the people were quite serious. Developmental program The need to develop and implement effective strategies for providing rights to the people of the country has been analysed. As per the rules drafted by the United Nations, an attempt has been made to evaluate, the critical issues that are associated with the racial discrimination and racism. The rules and the rights that have been granted to women have being analysed. This has been done to analyse the challenges that can affect the rights that have been proposed to be granted to the people. The obstacles and the challenges faced by the women groups have to be analysed. It is quite important to provide the women group with the rights and benefits that would help in improving the quality of living for the people. The political parties have been entrusted with the task related to improving the civil and economic factors that would help in providing better facilities to the people (Chris, 2010). The number of children or young people in Kuwait basically faces victimization issues, which impacts the lives of the people. Many programs has been introduced for analysing the steps that would have to be followed for implementing special measures that would help in the development of the people. Thus, the right steps have been taken for combating the issues associated with racism that restricts people from getting the benefits framed by the UN. In some cases the inequitable and political factors also impact the racism factors. The process to develop positive and feasible equality rights for every individual has to be done in the right manner, as this will help in upgrading the lives of the people. As per the UN rules, it is essential to follow fundamental rules that would help in eradicating the issues associated with racism. The factors that are associated with racism and employment have to be analysed. Rules state that the companies or organizations need to follow the right steps through which the members or the staffs could be provided with fair and equal rights to work at the organization. In Kuwait, many people from foreign countries have reported to be exploited from different types of racism and racial discrimination issues. The formation of the non-government organizations would prove to be quite helpful in handling the issues associated with such factors. The prime motive is to develop and implement the right steps through which the discrimination factors can be analysed. Also an attempt has been made to ensure that the workplace is free from any sort of discrimination that can affect the morality of the individual. The rules associated with civil rights enforcement and public education has to be analysed. This will help in developing and implementing the rules that would help the people in overp owering the issues that can affect the development of the community. In the similar manner, it is essential to establish and follow the right methods for communicating the challenges that can directly impact the morality of the individuals (ECLAC, 2012). The role played by the political groups also has to be considered in this process. The political groups in Kuwait have been striving towards solving the problem that has been associated with solving the issue related to racial discrimination. However, the rules have been discussed, and the effective solution is yet to be implemented by the authorities. The political groups have been working towards solving the issues and promoting equity basis that would encourage the members to do the right things for benefitting the organization. In order to curb the inequality amongst the employees or the expats the federal authorities promote the below mentioned factors Solidarity Equality Reducing of non-discrimination (Evelyn, 2007). The debate and the action plan that have been drafted by the authorities are analysed. This would help in overpowering the issues that are associated with unequal rights and racism. In this process, corrective measures are expected to take in terms of law amending, measuring the values, and analysing the policies that have been followed by the authorities. The steps have to be analysed as this will help in providing better facilities to the people. International rules against racism The international rules drafted and implemented for protecting the rights of the individuals or groups play a key role in amending the changes that would help in solving the issues related to racism. The international rules, the discrimination acts and the human rights have been implemented so as to find the best method through which the issues can be resolved. The treaties are formed, and it is necessary to implement the policies in the right manner. This would help in increasing the measures that would have to be followed for securing the rights of the individuals or the groups. The rule that has been drafted for eliminating the issue related to racial discrimination has to be discharged with an intention of providing better facilities to the people. Polices mentioned in the treaty have to be followed by the members in the accurate manner. The international community from different parts of the globe draft exclusively policies through which the changes related to racism can be impl emented. This has been done in collaboration with the United Educational System. The cultural values and other issues can impact the strategy set forth by the authorities have to be analysed. The quality of education, along with the rights to work has been included in the rules that have been drafted by the UN. International rules for human rights and protection have to be implemented in the right procedure. This would help the federal authorities in protecting the rights and dignity of the people and the groups. The rules are exclusively drafted for the members or the people (Ezzerhoini, 2010). As per the allegations that were levied by the authorities, it was noted that the authorities from the sports department were involved in issues that could cause racism and corrupting in different areas like sports and organizing events. There are different factors that have caused or increased the possibilities for racism. As per the authorities, such acts were related to the racists actions that were expected to be taken against the Middle East countries. Such incidences or occurrences have become quite common in Kuwait and other countries in Middle East. In the similar manner, the quality of education and the roles played by the teachers and other education experts have been questioned. This has been done to question the credibility of the rules that has been drafted for securing the education rights for the people. In the past, it is observed that many political and controversial factors or issues existed. This had impacted the quality of education that was intended to be introdu ced to help students in learning new lessons. Due to the factors associated with racism and other factors, the issues related to internal conflicts became quite serious. The atrocities imposed on people have to be worked out serious by the authorities. This has been done by implementing the rules that would help in solving the internal conflicts can be resolved. Such a factor was quite important as this would help on reducing the negative impact of racism. The problem that could affect the educational system and impact the people in getting the best education have to be analysed. This would help in solving the problem and adopting the best steps through which the essential steps could be taken to introduce the changes (Fekete, 2009). Issues associated with racism Kuwait and many of the countries in the Middle East have always been suffering from the issues related to the racism and social discrimination against the people and the community or the groups that exist in the country. The ratio of discrimination against the foreign citizens has been increasing. There have been various reasons that have been associated with the same; however none of them could be justified. Workers or expats from the Asian countries like Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, and others work in Arab countries and Kuwait. However the authorities fail to provide the members or the staffs with the rights that would secure their lives and work culture. The discrimination behaviour and laws or rules followed against such people or groups have been serious concerns. Many of the workers in this country are hired for foreign nations. The country has limited members or qualified staffs that could perform the challenging tasks at the workplace. Such factors contribute towards the eco nomic development of the country. However, the authorities and the management of certain companies fail to realise the importance of providing better work culture and security to the members (Gallup, 2013). Issues faced by the people moving from different places like Mecca and Jeddah are quite different. In this case, people belong to minor group, and have to face lots of challenges that are related to providing better rights to the people. The rights of the ethnic groups and culture had to be protected. Authorities of the country had failed to impose the precise rules that would secure the rights of the people. This was one of the reasons; many people or organizations imposed self-made rules. The rules were manipulated by the people with higher power. Thus the needs to impose accurate rules that would provide better rights to the people had to be imposed by the authorities (George, 2011). Religious belief and practices has been few of the reasons that have contributed towards the discrimination factors. In some cases, people are emotionally attracted with the religion and prohibit others from following the practices that has been followed in their country. The discrimination has been carried out in the form of sub-cast and other factors. This is one of the serious concerns and has to be handled in the right press. The people belonging to the Shia group were not permitted to work in military. In the similar manner, the stress and the rules that were drafted for the foreign members were quite strict and in some cases unacceptable. This has been one of the promote reasons; the authorities now are working towards drafting the best policies that would minimise the racism. Incidences related to racial discrimination Couples travelling from different countries have been detained for not possessing the marriage certificate copy. Such incidences are not logically accepted, in other developed and developing countries. The search is stricter for Asia expats, and this states about the incidences related to racism (Kuwait Times, 2015). VOIP applications have been used by many users, for various purposes. The usage cannot be questioned, nor can the details checked for no appropriate reasons. In the similar manner, the expats also face serious problem while applying or getting a drivers license in this country. In the worst scenario, the licenses of the applicants get cancelled for petty reasons. Rules drafted for the Asian expats in many cases are illogical and unaccepted. The report further states that the authorities conduct a thorough research on the views of the individual or groups of people to get them arrested. Such activities have been considered to be a criminal activity and cannot be accepted as per the rules that have been drafted by the United Nations. Law and order has to be uniform for every individual, regardless of the nationality. However, the rules have been used for seeing an individual or groups, so as to arrest for improper accurate reasons. Kuwait is a country that has been guided by the Islami c practices, and this is assumed by the people to be a peaceful country. However the fact is quite different from the stated reality. The laws formed and followed by the authorities of the country are not good enough to support the human rights that are required for the individual. The report also states that the Asian expats in Kuwait have the appropriate type of job, which contributes towards the economic development of the country. Nevertheless, the authorities fail to provide the members with the rights and benefits that are deserved by the expats (Aguna and Kovacevic, 2011). Employees are imported from many of the Asian countries, as there are many benefits that are associated with the issue. The authorities usually hire such employees at the lowest price and provide the people with less or no benefits at all. This is considered to be improper and contributes towards racism. Many workers are provided with illegal visas, which make the whole process illegal. Through such process, the management of the company attempts to increase the profits, and provide fewer benefits to the people. Rich and established people of the country, continue to earn lucrative profit every year, while poor fail to protect the rights that have to be provided to them. The issue related to racism has always been serious and thus the authorities have attempted to take the corrective steps that would control the consequences of the acts. In the past, the colonialism had caused racism, which included racial discrimination and implementation of intolerance rules on the people. The authorities in Kuwait had imposed strict rules on the Asian expats, which had made the event quite inhuman for the people. Impact of racism on the lives of the people from different descendants had to be analysed. Through this process, an effort for corrective actions and proper implementation of the steps for securing the lives of the people could be introduced for the people. Victims of the racism had to face lots of challenges in leading a normal live. Such rights were an integral part of the basic rights that were supposed to be provided to the people. The authorities had to take the correct steps through which the structure of the country for following the rights that has to be provided to the people has to be implemented (Alkire, Conconi, and Seth, 2014). Racism is a factor that impacts the economic performance of the country negatively. It also affects the cultural and social factors, which is considered to be essential for the development of the country. The factors that are associated with racism and racial discrimination have affected the performance of the country. In fact, it has caused underdevelopment of the nation, which is a serious concern for the people. Rights provided to men, children, and women has to be equal as this would help in analysing the challenges and implementing the right steps that would help in providing equal rights to the people residing in the country. Apart from providing equal rights, it is essential to develop and implement an effective rule that would provide equal and fair opportunities to the expats residing in the court. In other words, it is essential to introduce the right development steps that would provide an atmosphere to everyone (Amnesty International, 2012). The article highlights the relevance of the amendment rights that was introduced by the activist named Abdullah Fairouz. He was basically known for fighting for the rights of the people from Bedoon. The leader has being active in fighting for the cause of the stateless status that existed in Kuwait for almost four years. Support was provided through the Nebras group that was formed to provide support to the migrant workers. The leader had expressed his willingness to contest in election, with an intention of implementing constitutional changes. Such changes were meant to benefit the people and protect the rights of the individual. The leader has been voicing against the issues related to racism and anti-normalization rules or policies that existed in the country for more than 40 years. The prime objective of the leader has been to improve the condition of the people. Such factors reduce the incidences against racial discrimination. He also highlighted some of the practices that were not considered to be favourable for the women of the country. For instance, many men in the e country would marry women in the Urfi process. This was done to hide the new wife from the other wives. Such a practice was criticised as it featured the masculinity of the mentioned the rules that were exclusively drafted for them (Archer, 2003). The leader also stressed on different forms of racism factors that had impacted the people and the economic development of the country. Discrimination against the immigrants has been constantly increasing. This was done by the authorities by not providing enough benefits and rights that were quite necessary for sustaining on a foreign land. Through the stateless, an effort was made to marginalize the rights that were expected to be provided to the citizens. However, the task was not expected to introduce the rule was considered to be quite far from the reliability that was proposed by the leader. In this case, it was necessary to stay away from the issues related to the social hostility and state. As per the leader, the authorities followed their own rights to sue people and impose restrictions. There was differentiation in the rules that were followed for different class of people. This was done to discriminate people from the rest of the residents of the country. It was essential t o draft the best policy through which the discriminating acts could be reduced. At the time of filing legal suits against the people the authorities dont analyse the impact of the political factors and the judiciary system. In order to reduce the impact of the discriminating acts and practices, it was essential to impose the right rules. Such rules would help the authorities of the country to fight against the evil practices that impacted the people and the country. The election contestants have to voice for the rights of the people and do the things that would help in improving the living standards for the people (Al-Shaikh, and Anas, 2009). Conclusion Issues and challenges associated with racism are quite serious in nature and needs to be worked upon in a different manner. However, many countries have to yet yield the expected results. In this case, the challenges and other factors related to racial discrimination and racism have to be analysed. This would help in drafting the best policy through which the challenges can be analysed and worked upon in the right manner. There are many factors that cause racism and it needs to be worked upon on a timely manner. For this, the essential changes have to be implemented after analysing the problem that is related to analysing the factors that are associated with racism. The issue is quite serious in Kuwait, which is one of the important countries in the Middle East. Thus, corrective steps have to be taken to introduce the changes that would help in implementing the right measures through which the rights of the people and the groups can be protected. This is quite an important task and n eeds to be done in the right manner. The changes in terms of policies and other factors have to be planned and introduced by the authorities. This will help in proving better benefits to the people. References Ali W, and Clifton W, Duss M, Fang L, Keyes S, and Shakir F, 2011. 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Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, Oxford University, UK. Ayres I, 2008. Racial Profiling and the LAPD: A Study of Racially Disparate Outcomes in the Los Angeles Police Department (2008), available at https://www.aclu-sc.org/lapdracialprofiling. For a more detailed discussion of the statistical evidence of ongoing racial profiling in Los Angeles, see the California section of this report infra p. 51. Amnesty International, 2012. Annual Report 2012. The state of the worlds human rights. Available at: https://www. amnesty.org/en/annual-report/2012. Amnesty International, Threat Humiliation: Racial Profiling, Domestic Security, Human Rights in the United States VII, 31 (2004), available at https://www.amnestyusa.org/racial_profiling/report/rp_report.pdf. Archer L, 2003. Race, Masculinity and Schooling: Muslim boys and education, Maidenhead: Open University Press. Al-Shaikh- A, and Anas A, 2009. Public opinion and political influence: issues in contemporary popular fiction, in Wanda Krause (ed) Citizenship, Security and Democracy: Muslim engagement with the West, London: Association of Muslim Social Scientists, pp 4770 Barro R,and Lee J, 2013. A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 19502010. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 15902. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. www. nber.org/papers/w15902. Bevelander P and Otterbeck J, 2012. Islamophobia in Sweden: politics, representations, attitudes and experiences, in Marc Helbling (ed) Islamophobia in the West: measuring and explaining individual attitudes, London: Routledge, pp. 7082. Birt Y, 2009. Islamophobia in the construction of British Muslim identity politics, in Peter Hopkins and Richard Gale (eds), Muslims in Britain: race, place and identities, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 210-11. Bunzi M, 2007. Antisemitism and Islamophobia: hatreds old and new in Europe, Chicago University Press. Cesari J, 2006. Muslims in Europe after 9/11: why the term Islamophobia is more a predicament than an explanation, https://www.libertysecurity.org/article1167.htm. Crawford A, 2007. "Iraq's Mandaeans 'face extinction'".BBC News. Chris A, 2005. From race to religion: the new face of discrimination, in Tahir Abbas (ed) Muslim Britain: communities under pressure, London and New York: Zed Press. Chris A, 2010. Islamophobia, Farnham UK and Burlington USA: Ashgate Publishing. CNN.com, 2002. Activists Reflect on Post-Sept. 11 Civil Rights, https://edition.cnn.com/2002/US/01/19/civil.rights. rally/index.htm ECLAC, 2012. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Preliminary Overview of the Economies of Latin America and the Caribbean. Santiago. www.eclac. org/cgi-bin/getProd.asp?xml=/publicaciones/xml/4/41974/ P41974.xml. Cong. (2007), End Racial Profiling Act of 2005, S. 2138, 109th Cong. (2005); End Racial Profiling Act of 2007, S. 2481, 110th Evelyn L, 2007. U.N. Expert Faults U.S. on Human Rights in Terror Laws, The Washington Post. Ezzerhoini D, 2010. Lislamophobie, un racisme apparu avec la colonisation, Algrie-focus, Fekete L, 2009. A Suitable Enemy: racism, migration and Islamophobia in Europe, London: Pluto Press Gallup, 2013. Gallup World Poll database. https://worldview. gallup.com. George C, 2011. This Idiotic Man: sharia law and the Archbishop of Canterbury, in Julian Petley and Robin Richardson (eds) Pointing the Finger: Islam and Muslims in the British media, Oxford: One World Publications 2011, pp 201-20. Gottschalk Pand Greenberg G, 2006. Islamophobia: making Muslims the enemy, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield. Hyland B, Moene K, and Willumsen F, 2011. The Tyranny of International Index Rankings. Journal of Development Economics 97(1): 114. Humayan A, 2004,. The Enemy Within: Muslims in Britain since 1800, London: Hurst ILO, 2013. International Labour Organization). 2013a. Key Indicators of the Labour Market. 7th edition. Geneva. www.ilo. org/empelm/what/WCMS_114240/lang--en/index.htm Insted Consultancy, 2007. The Search for Common Ground: Muslims, non-Muslims and the UK media, Greater London Authority https://www.insted.co.uk/search-for-common-ground.pdf IMF, 2014. International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook database. April 2014. www.imf.org/external/ pubs/ft/weo/2014/01/weodata/index.aspx. Jahangir A, and Doudou D, 2006. Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Asma Jahangir, and the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, Doudou Dine, further to Human Rights Council decision 1/107 on incitement to racial and religious hatred and the promotion of tolerance. Document A/HRC/2/3, Geneva. Joel R, 2009. City seeks to lift federal oversight of LAPD, L.A. available at https://latimesblogs.latimes.com/ lanow/2009/06/consent-order.htm Preston J, 2008. National Briefing: Plains; North Dakota: Immigrants Arrested, N.Y. Times, available at https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9404E6DE123AF933A05753C1A96E9C8B63sec=spon=emc=eta1; see also Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), Under Siege: Life for Low-Income Latinos in the South 16-24 (2009), available at https://www.splcenter.org/legal/undersiege/ Jonker G, and Thobani S, 2009. Narrating Islam: interpretations of the Muslim world in European texts, London: I B Tauris. Kumar D, 2012. Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire, New York: Haymarket Books Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund, Confronting the New Faces of Hate: Hate Crimes in America 2009 (2009) Malik M, 2010. Anti-Muslim Prejudice in the West, Past and Present, London: Routledge. Rosenbaum M, Bibring P, 2009. Extend the LAPD consent decree, L.A. Times, June 4, 2009, available at https://www. latimes.com/news/opinion/la-oe-rosenbaum4-2009jun04,0,4832552.story Mills T and Griffin T, and Miller D, 2011. The Cold War on British Muslims, London: Spinwatch https://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/4039139/2003227681/name/The%20Cold%20War.pdf Macaj G, 2012. Transforming bloc politics through issue-specific coalitions: a strategy for Western countries in the UN Human Rights Council. Manuscript. Berlin. McMahon E, 2012. The Universal Periodic Review: A Work in Progress. An Evaluation of the First Cycle of the New UPR Mechanism of the United Nations Human Rights Council. Available at: https://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/ genf/09297.pdf MassoudA, 20087. "Left in Lebanon," The Guaradian. Modood T, 2005. Multicultural Politics: racism, ethnicity and Muslims in Britain, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Muir H, and Smith L, 2011. Keeping your identity and your job: voices from the newsroom, in Julian Petley and Robin Richardson (eds) Pointing the Finger: Islam and Muslims in the British media, Oxford: One World Publications 2011, pp. 201-20. Obama, 2008. Blueprint For Change: Obama and Bidens Plan for America 65 (2008), available at https://www.barackobama.com/pdf/ObamaBlueprintForChange.pdf OECD, 2013. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. PISA 2012 results. www.oecd. org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results.htm. Palma J, 2011. Homogeneous Middles vs. Heterogeneous Tails, and the End of the Inverted-U: The Share of the Rich Is What Its All About. Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1111. Cambridge University, UK. www.econ.cam.ac.uk/dae/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe1111.pdf. Rathgeber T, 2005. Strengthening the Commission on Human Rights. Remarks towards a constructive dialogue between South and North. Discussion Paper, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Geneva Office, Available at: https://library.fes. de/pdf-files/iez/global/50195.pdf Ritchie A, 2005. Law Enforcement Violence Against Women of Color in Color of Violence: The Incite! Anthology: Incite! Women of Color Against Violence (South End Press 2006); Amnesty International, Stonewalled: Police Abuse and Misconduct Against Lesbian, Gay. Bisexual and Transgender People in the U.S. 40 (2005), available at https://www.amnestyusa.org/outfront/stonewalled/report.pdf. Rubin M, 2002. "Iraq."The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed.Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum. pp. 410-419. Nick A, 2009. Human Rights Organizations Welcome U.S. Bid for U.N. Council Seat, Deutsche Welle. Salomon J, Wang H, Freeman M, Vos T, Flaxman A, Lopez D, and Murray C, 2012. Healthy Life Expectancy for 187 Countries, 19902010: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380(9859): 214462. Said E, 2001. Orientalism reconsidered, London: Race and Class, autumn, 27(2) pp l-l5. https://www.ata.boun.edu.tr/asistanlar/hist551/W9/said_orientalism%20reconsidered.pdf Samuels A, 2006. The fascination of fundamentalism, summary of a lecture https://www.andrewsamuels.com/index.php?view=articlecatid=3%3AArticles+And+Lect uresid=11%3AThe+Fascination+of+Fundamentalismoption=com_contentItemid=4 Shaik F, 2011. The New Folk Devils: Muslim boys and education in England, Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books. Shah A, 2010. Racism.Global Issues.. Web. https://www.globalissues.org/article/165/racism Shaik F, 2011. The New Folk Devils: Muslim boys and education in England, Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books. Sivanandan A, 2010. Fighting anti-Muslim racism: an interview with A. Sivanandan, London: Institute of Race Relations, https://www.irr.org.uk/2010/march/ha000031.html Steele J, 2006. "'We're staying and we will resist'".The Guardian(London). Retrieved2010-05-22. ToamehK, 2010. "Wheres the international outcry against Arab apartheid, Jerusalem Post. UN Secretary General, 2009. Joint statement by UN Secretary-General and government of Sri Lanka. Document SG/2151, Available at: https://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2009/sg2151.doc.htm United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), World Health Organization (WHO). (The) Right to Water, Fact Sheet No. 35. 2010. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactSheet35en.pdf Valenta M, 2011. The Future of Islamophobia: the liberal, the Jew, the animal, Open Democracy,13 May https://www.opendemocracy.net/markha-valenta/future-ofislamophobia-liberal-jewanimal?utm_source=feedblitzutm_medium=FeedBlitzEmailutm_content=201210utm _campaign=Nightly_%272011-05-14%2005%3a30%3a00%27 Wiener M, 2007. The Mandate of the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief Institutional, Procedural and Substantive Legal Issues. In: Religion and Human Rights 2 (2007), pp. 317. NewsOk, 2014. Kuwait Shiek: Qatar allegation based on racism. Viewed on 13th February, 2015. Retrieved from https://newsok.com/kuwaiti-sheik-qatar-allegations-based-on-racism/article/feed/696080 Kuwait Times, 2015. Truth Hurts. Viewed on 13th February, 2015. Retrieved from https://news.kuwaittimes.net/truth-hurts/ World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, 2001. Durban Declaration and Programme of Action, III(A)(1) 72, U.N. Doc A/CONF.189/12 (Sept. 2001), available at https://www. un.org/durbanreview2009/pdf/DDPA_full_text.pdf. Appendixes Newsletter published on Kuwait Times As per an article, published on Kuwait Times on 13th of February, 2015 the bitter truth about the racism was highlighted. The report stated that Kuwait has been termed to be one of the most racists countries in the world. This tag has in fact earned the title of being most hated countries in the world. People working as doctors, accountants, nurses, consultants, and others have to face issues related to racism on a regular basis. In some cases, the VOIP applications of the middle expats have been checked to find the details about the activities performed by the users. Second article on anti-racism in Kuwait As per the article that was published in the year 2013, the constitutional court of Kuwait had implemented rules for providing voting rights to the people. The law was amended to protect the rights and privileges of the minority groups that prevailed in the country. Discussions were made to analyse the practicality and validity of the rule related to one vote law. This was introduced in place of the older rule that had allowed the individual with four vote rights. Such practices had created unequal rights that were provided to limited individuals. In order to curb this practice, many elections were boycotted. This was also done to announce the candidacy that was considered to be essential for surviving the political turbulence (NewsOk, 2014).

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Market Value Concept from an Economic Perspective

Basically, political economy and in particular Marxian economics, the concept of exchange value is traditionally employed to define one of the core aspects of a commodity. Some of the correlated concepts are price, use value and value. This shows that a product has; a value, an exchange value, use value and a price.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Market Value Concept from an Economic Perspective specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These attributes have an extensive history ranging from the era of Aristotle all the way to the period of David Ricardo. However, the entry of Marx concepts tilted the earlier concepts of exchange value. From an economic perspective value is presented as the worth of either goods or services as set or determined by the existing markets. However, this observation does not hold the real formulation of what is in essence defined as value. For years economists as well as other social scientis ts have attempted to link and estimate the significance of value in relation to individual. Similarly, this approach has over the years been extended to both goods and services being exchanged. Hence, such approach saw the development of such dynamic concepts as value in exchange as well as value in use. Thus, examining the argument presented by Kalman Applbaum in the article â€Å"Pharmaceutical Marketing† the concept of value is correlated to marketing and branding. As the article asserts individuals are willing to pay higher prices for a brand than for a helpful product (Applbaum 0446). This concept is thus widely employed by pharmaceutical companies. The core objective of such approach is to create more earnings from a brand value than from the products. What this means is that brand value dictates what the greater society consumes. Equally, this same approach is well illustrated by the manner coca cola brand is marketed. Basically, the brand value seems to be more profou nd than the product itself. This indicates that value can be measured as the set price of the given products. However, in regard to the argument presented by neoclassical economists, the value of any product is correlated to its price in relation to the free and competitive market. And the value is thus determined by the demand of the product relative to the market supply. Examining the approach etched in the pharmaceutical industry it can be argued that the market demand surpass the supply and this has played a critical role in establishing what is in essence value. In relation to value in use as well as brand value, these firms have opted to embrace the concepts developed by neoclassical economists.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the elements of value are not linked to improving the innate consumption of humans but rather to attain the greatest profitable margin. Th e principal features which drive such an approach can be explained by the fact that brand value has over the years been used as the vehicle by corporations tied their hope (Applbaum 0447). Hence, this has resulted in a situation whereby brand value supersede the need for satisfying the innate needs of humans through provision of what anthropologists defines as human value. The scope of brand value is thus echoed by Robert J Foster in his article â€Å"The WORK OF THE NEW ECONOMY: Consumers, Brand, and Value Creation. The author observes that consumers tend to go for popular brands while the product manufacturers through elaborate marketing strategies exploit this window presented by brand value (Foster 708). Equally, this results in value creation which rests on brand value rather than on the product itself. Though, Foster seems to suggest that the creation of new values begins with innovation; it is evident that the natural flow of market demands creates values. Thus, in an econom ic perspective the intensity of value is compactly determined by price as well as the price attached to products whether goods or services. Another notable aspect examined by Foster revolves within the context of satisfying what is defined as surplus value. This concept is defined by Marxian theorists as a notion that attempts to define and explain market instability in regard to capitalism. Thus, this posits that human labor forms the foundation of economic value. Thus, exploring the argument presented in the article we find that the concept of surplus value is definitely less examined. This can be linked to the fact that modern corporations are more concerned in making profits rather than satisfying the market values. Hence, the creation of brand values which are becoming more potent than value in use. Comparing the explanations brought forward by both Foster and Applbaum it is evident that the concept of use value is less considered in the current society. This is elaborated in t he manner diverse organization are anchoring on massive marketing without examining the aspects of use-value which is in essence the qualitative characteristic of value, that is, the solid manner in which a product satisfy human needs.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Market Value Concept from an Economic Perspective specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Perhaps that is why Graeber argues that when we are talking of use value we tend to think that we are dealing with definite attributes such as tons of, dozens of or meters of (442). Basically, he notes that use-value correlated to commodities becomes real when the given commodity or product is used or consumed. According to Graeber the concept of value is predominantly defined differently economists (443). To his observations the concept of value have been restricted to market theories which are designed to produce mathematical satisfaction in relation to allocating l imit resources while pursuing profits. In essence, the core argument in his article suggests that the concept of value is based on market convenience rather than on satisfying the human needs. Hence he attempts to draw a parallel between what the anthropologists think of values and what economists take as value. From such an observation we are brought to the same sentiments voiced by Foster and Applbaum, exchange value seems to be the determinant factor in regard to what is assumed to be all inclusive. Thus, the scope of neoclassical economy is brought as being the modern measure of value, this approach assumes that human approaches calls for allocation of available resources in pursuit of limited resources. Yet exploring the dynamics of use value, brand value as well as surplus value, this concept fails to satisfy the innate needs of man. What this demonstrates is that the diverse economic projections witnessed have evolved to be restricted to the available resources or markets wit hout exploring other regions of improving on value. As noted in the article â€Å"The Work of the New Economy† the diverse attributes of what is defined as value can be said to be tied to profits This is also established by the massive marketing investments which have overtaken the noble cause of production. It ought to be noted that marketing is essential in building brand value and this has gone to the limit of misleading the consumers who rarely identifies the use value of the given product or services.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Graeber, â€Å"Value† Foster, â€Å"The Work of the New Economy† Applbaum, â€Å"Pharmaceutical Marketing† have all accepted that the scope of value is money-priced. This seems to be due to the emerging market demands which are not fully satisfied. Hence, the dynamics of value are not treated as processes of enhancing social well being rather the concepts of value are left to the domain of traditional social scientists. Thus, it becomes difficult to establish in essence what the core purpose of value is in the growing neoclassical economy. In conclusion, it is evident that the scope of value is the most disputed feature in regard to political economics. This can be allied to the fact that the hypothesis of exchange which rests on the porch of science happens to be the bridge linking problems allied to economics to problems social in nature. And this happens to be the pointer of exiting from the theoretical manipulation affecting the whole sphere of human economy . More so, its conceptual nature makes an objective approach quite complex for all those who have ventured into exploring the aspects of value in regard to human economy. Thus, the concept of market values in regard to exchange values though essential presents a mountain of queries than answers. As established by Graeber the concept of value compactly left behind as the political economists are more concerned with developing attributes that are profit oriented in regard to labor, pricing and distribution. And this seems to be the foundation laid by those advocating for neoclassical economy, that is, capitalist markets. Works Cited Applbaum, Kalman.Pharmaceutical Marketing.Pls Medicine 3.4. (2006):0445-0447. Foster, J Robert. The work of new economy. Cultural Anthropology 22.4 (2007):709- 729. Graeber, David. Value: anthropological theories of value. A handbook of economic  Anthropology. Oxford: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005. This essay on Market Value Concept from an Economic Perspective was written and submitted by user Annabella K. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Royal Proclamation Act of 1763 Essay Example

The Royal Proclamation Act of 1763 Essay Example The Royal Proclamation Act of 1763 Paper The Royal Proclamation Act of 1763 Paper In the aftermath of the French and Indian War, Britain needed a new imperial design, but the situation in America was anything but favorable to change. Long accustomed to a large measure of independence, the colonies were demanding more, not less, freedom, particularly now that the French menace had been eliminated. To put a new system into effect, and to tighten control, Parliament had to contend with colonists trained in self-government and impatient with interference. One of the thefirst things that British attempted was the organization of the interior. The conquest of Canada and of the Ohio Valley necessitated policies that would not alienate the French and Indian inhabitants. But here the Crown came into conflict with the interests of the colonies. Fast increasing in population, and needing more land for settlement, various colonies claimed the right to extend their boundaries as far west as the Mississippi River. The British government, fearing that settlers migrating into the new lands would provoke a series of Indian wars, believed that the lands should be opened to colonists on a more gradual basis. Restricting movement was also a way of ensuring royal control over existing settlements before allowing the formation of new ones. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 reserved all the western territory between the Alleghenies, Florida, the Mississippi River and Quebec for use by Native Americans. Thus the Crown attempted to sweep away every western land claim of the 13 colonies and to stop westward expansion. Though never effectively enforced, this measure, in the eyes of the colonists, constituted a high-handed disregard of their most elementary right to occupy and settle western lands. More serious in its repercussions was the new financial policy of the British government, which needed more money to support its growing empire. Unless the taxpayer in England was to supply all money for the colonies’ defense, revenues would have to be.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Children today waste too much time playing video games Essay

Children today waste too much time playing video games - Essay Example Children virtually spend their summer vacations playing these games. About half of all children have a video game player or a computer on which to play the video game and parents do not restrict the types of game the children play. AskDr.Sears.com reports eighty percent of most popular video games feature violence and aggressiveness. Surveys also suggest, by the time a typical American child reaches the age of eighteen, he has seen 200,000 acts of violence and 40,000 murders on screen. According to Maney (2005) video games might be the best things that children can do to ensure their future success. Maney quotes Steve Johnson, who says that at every point while playing the video games one has to make decisions. One has to think about patterns, long-term goals, and resources. These help to take a decision and depending upon the feedback from the game one again has to adjust the decision. Maney confirms that games like Halo 2, EverQuest or the lurid Grand Theft Auto hone the kind of decision-making abilities that define a successful person. Parents often insist that children should spend time reading books rather than playing video games. Johnson disagrees saying whatever the benefits of reading, you are following someone else’s decision. Video games have been linked to violence and aggressive behavior. Others believe that video games provide an outlet for aggression and frustration. According to the journal American Family Physician, studies have not been able to show concrete evidence of behaviour being affected due to violent video games. This argument can be countered by the violence and blood bath that children are exposed to, in books like King Lear and Lord of the Flies. They challenge the belief that books are automatically better than video games. Dr. John C Beck, author of Got Games, believes video games foster team skills (cited by Powell S, 2005). He refutes the view that it